Train Simulator 2014 Tren DB InterCity Express 2 402 Descarrilando en Fin de Via Ruta An ICE Cool Mo

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El Intercity-Express (escrito como InterCityExpress en Austria , Dinamarca , Suiza y, anteriormente, en Alemania ) o ICE ( pronunciación alemana: [iːtseːʔeː] ) es un sistema de trenes de alta velocidad que se ejecutan principalmente en Alemania y sus países vecinos. Es la categoría de servicio más alto ofrecido por DB Fernverkehr y es el buque insignia de la Deutsche Bahn . El nombre de la marca “ICE” es uno de los más conocidos en Alemania, con un conocimiento de la marca cerca del 100%, según DB. [ 1 ]

En este momento hay 259 trenes en cinco versiones diferentes de los vehículos de ICE en uso, el nombre ICE 1 (desplegado en 1991), ICE 2 (1996), ICE T (1999), el ICE 3 (1999) y el ICE TD (2001-2003, de nuevo en servicio 2007). El ICE 3, incluyendo sus modelos variantes, es hecha por un consorcio liderado por Bombardier y Siemens .

Aparte de uso doméstico, los trenes también se pueden ver en los países vecinos Alemania. Hay, por ejemplo, ICE 1 líneas a Basilea y Zurich . ICE 3 trenes también funcionan a Lieja y Bruselas [ 2 ] ya velocidades inferiores a Amsterdam . [ 3 ] El 10 de junio de 2007, una nueva línea entre París y Frankfurt / Stuttgart se abrió, operado conjuntamente por la ICE y TGV trenes. Trenes ICE a Londres a través del túnel del Canal están previstas para 2015. [ 4 ]

Mientras que los trenes ICE 3M operan el servicio París-a-Frankfurt (con la excepción de los trenes de 9553/9552, que operan con TGV Duplex equipo y son cruzadas tripulado con tanto SNCF y el personal DB), de SNCF TGV va desde París a Munich (a través de Stuttgart), con tripulaciones mixtas de ambos trenes. [ 5 ] [ 6 ]

Trenes ICE T alemanes y austríacos corren a Viena . El 9 de diciembre de 2007, el TD ICE se introdujo en el servicio desde Berlín a través de Hamburgo a las ciudades danesas de Aarhus y Copenhague .

El operador español de trenes de RENFE también emplea trenes basado en el ICE 3 ( Siemens Velaro ). [ 7 ] versiones más anchas fueron ordenados por China para el ferrocarril de alta velocidad Beijing-Tianjin enlace ( CRH 3 ) y por Rusia para el Moscú – San Petersburgo y Moscú – Nizhny Novgorod rutas ( Velaro RUS ).

El Deutsche Bundesbahn comenzó una serie de ensayos en 1985 utilizando el InterCityExperimental (también llamado ICE-V) tren de pruebas. El IC experimental fue utilizado como un tren escaparate y para los ensayos de alta velocidad, estableciendo un nuevo récord mundial de velocidad en 406,9 kmh (253 mph) el 1 de mayo de 1988. [ 9 ] El tren fue retirado en 1996 y reemplazada por una nueva unidad de ensayo, llamado el ICE S .

Tras un amplio debate entre la Bundesbahn y el Ministerio de Transporte con respecto a los equipos a bordo, la longitud y la anchura del tren y el número de trenes se requiere, se ordenó un primer lote de 41 unidades en 1988. La orden se amplió a 60 unidades en 1990, con la reunificación alemana en mente. Sin embargo, no todos los trenes podrían ser entregados en el tiempo.

La red ICE se inauguró oficialmente el 29 de mayo 1991 con varios vehículos que convergen en la estación de nueva construcción Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe desde diferentes direcciones.

The EMD SD70 is a series of diesel-electric locomotives produced by Electro-Motive Diesel in response to the GE Dash 9-44CW. Production commenced in late 1992[1] and since then over 4,000 units have been produced; most of these are the SD70M and SD70MAC models. All locomotives of this series are hood units with C-C trucks.

Prior to the SD70ACe and SD70M-2 models, all SD70 models were delivered with the self-steering HTCR radial truck.[2] The radial truck allows the axles to steer in curves which reduces wear on the wheels and railhead. With the introduction of the SD70ACe and SD70M-2 models, EMD introduced a new bolsterless non-radial HTSC truck as the standard truck for these models in an effort to reduce costs. The HTCR-4 radial truck is still an option.

The SD70 uses the smaller standard cab or spartan cab, common on older 60 Series locomotives, instead of the larger, more modern comfort cab. This makes it hard to distinguish from the nearly-identical SD60, the only difference being the use of the HTCR radial truck instead of the HT-C truck mounted under the SD60. The main spotting feature is the difference in length between the two models – the SD60’s 71 feet, 2 inches vs. the SD70’s 72 feet, 4 inches. The SD70 also rides higher as its frame is approximately 1⁄2 inch (13 mm) higher than the SD60’s. This model is equipped with direct current (DC) traction motors, which simplifies the locomotive’s electrical system by obviating the need for computer-controlled inverters (as are required for alternating current (AC) power). It is equipped with the 4,000 horsepower (3,000 kW), 16-cylinder EMD 710 prime mover. One hundred and twenty-two examples of this model locomotive were produced for Norfolk Southern Railway (NS), Conrail, Illinois Central Railroad (IC) and Southern Peru Copper (SPC). Conrail’s assets were split between Norfolk Southern (PRR) and CSX Transportation in 1999, and all 24 of Conrail’s SD70 units went to NS. Other than the CR paint scheme these units were built to NS specifications and numbered (2557 – 2580) in series with their SD70’s.

Production of the standard cab at EMD’s London, Ontario plant ended in 1994. The 24 Conrail SD70s were assembled from kits at Conrail’s (later NS’s) Juniata Shops in Altoona, Pennsylvania, and the IC and SPC SD70s were assembled from kits at Super Steel Schenectady. All SD70s are still in service with Norfolk Southern and Canadian National (CN), which merged Illinois Central in 1999.

The SD70M has a wide nose and a large comfort cab (officially known as the “North American Safety Cab”), allowing crew members to ride more comfortably inside of the locomotive than the older standard cab designs. There are two versions of this cab on SD70Ms: the Phase I cab, which was first introduced on the SD60M, and is standard on the SD80MAC and SD90MACs, and the Phase II cab, which is a boxier design similar to the original three-piece windscreen on the SD60M, which is shared with the Phase II SD90MAC, SD89MAC, and SD80ACe. The Phase II cab has a two-piece windscreen like the Phase I windscreen but the design of the nose is more boxy, with a taller square midsection for more headroom.

The SD70M is equipped with D90TR DC traction motors and the 710G3B prime mover.[3] They are capable of generating 109,000 lbf (480 kN) of continuous tractive effort.[3] From mid-2000, the SD70M was produced with SD45-style flared radiators allowing for the larger radiator cores needed for split-cooling. Split-cooling is a feature that separates the coolant circuit for the prime mover and the circuit for the air pumps and turbocharger. There are two versions of this radiator: the older version has two large radiator panels on each side, and the newer version has four square panels on each side. This modification was made in response to the enactment of the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Tier I environmental regulations.

Production of the SD70M ceased in late 2004 as production of the SD70M-2 model began (the EPA’s Tier II regulations went into effect on 1 January 2005). 1,646 examples of the SD70M model were produced. Purchasers included CSX, New York Susquehanna & Western (NYSW; part of EMDX order no. 946531[4]), Norfolk Southern and Southern Pacific (SP; now part of the Union Pacific Railroad), but the vast majority were purchased by Union Pacific.

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